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PDC钻头齿的破岩机理和性能测试方法研究现状

李彦操

李彦操. PDC钻头齿的破岩机理和性能测试方法研究现状[J]. 金刚石与磨料磨具工程, 2023, 43(5): 553-567. doi: 10.13394/j.cnki.jgszz.2023.0155
引用本文: 李彦操. PDC钻头齿的破岩机理和性能测试方法研究现状[J]. 金刚石与磨料磨具工程, 2023, 43(5): 553-567. doi: 10.13394/j.cnki.jgszz.2023.0155
LI Yancao. Research status on rock-breaking mechanism and performance testing methods of PDC bit cutters[J]. Diamond & Abrasives Engineering, 2023, 43(5): 553-567. doi: 10.13394/j.cnki.jgszz.2023.0155
Citation: LI Yancao. Research status on rock-breaking mechanism and performance testing methods of PDC bit cutters[J]. Diamond & Abrasives Engineering, 2023, 43(5): 553-567. doi: 10.13394/j.cnki.jgszz.2023.0155

PDC钻头齿的破岩机理和性能测试方法研究现状

doi: 10.13394/j.cnki.jgszz.2023.0155
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李彦操,男,1977年生,高级工程师。主要研究方向:钻井完井设计管理、技术管理和新技术推广。E-mail:liyancao.slyt@sinopec.com

  • 中图分类号: TQ164; TG74; TG58

Research status on rock-breaking mechanism and performance testing methods of PDC bit cutters

  • 摘要: 聚晶金刚石复合片(polycrystalline diamond compact,PDC)钻头,是钻井工程中主要破岩工具之一。PDC钻头切削齿的破岩效率、耐磨性、热稳定性和抗冲击性等性能指标对PDC钻头的使用效果影响很大,相关研究在国内外备受关注。本文总结了国内外有关PDC钻头齿破岩机理和性能测试的实验装置、测试方法等代表性成果,按照PDC钻头齿与岩石相互作用的方式,相关实验主要包括5大类:PDC钻头齿直线切削实验、旋转切削实验、落锤冲击实验、PDC钻头单齿静压实验以及全尺寸PDC钻头实验;按照测试目的,又可分为PDC钻头齿的破岩机理和性能测试2大类。通过调研分析这些实验研究的优缺点,以期为PDC钻头齿的研究与优化、PDC钻头的整体个性化设计等提供参考。

     

  • 图  1  单齿破岩实验装置[6]

    Figure  1.  Single cutter rock-breaking experimental device[6]

    图  2  单齿切削实验装置示意图[8]

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of single cutter cutting experimental device[8]

    图  3  立式铣床改装切削实验装置示意图[10]

    Figure  3.  Schematic diagram of cutting test device based on vertical milling machine[10]

    图  4  刮切破碎实验装置示意图[12]

    Figure  4.  Schematic diagram of scraping and crushing experimental device[12]

    图  5  线性切削实验台结构图[13]

    Figure  5.  Structural diagram of linear cutting experimental platform[13]

    图  6  线性切削实验台[5]

    Figure  6.  Linear cutting experimental bench[5]

    图  7  全尺寸岩心强度连续刻划[15]

    Figure  7.  Continuous characterization of full-size core strength[15]

    图  8  单齿旋转破岩实验装置[17]

    Figure  8.  Single cutter rotating rock-breaking experimental device[17]

    图  9  微PDC钻头岩石耐磨性实验装置[21]

    Figure  9.  Experimental device for rock wear-resistance of micro PDC drill bits[21]

    图  10  磨耗比测定仪局部示意图[23]

    Figure  10.  Partial schematic diagram of wear ratio tester[23]

    图  11  VTL测试设备[29]

    Figure  11.  VTL test device[29]

    图  12  高速摄像机拍摄的岩屑状态

    Figure  12.  Rock debris status captured by high-speed camera

    图  13  PDC钻头齿脱钴深度及几何尺寸测量

    Figure  13.  Measurement of cobalt removal depth and geometric dimensions of PDC drill bit cutters

    图  14  典型的VTL干磨测试结果

    Figure  14.  A typical dry VTL test result

    图  15  典型的VTL湿磨测试结果

    Figure  15.  Typical VTL wet grinding test results

    图  16  PDC钻头齿的磨损面积测量

    Figure  16.  PDC bit cutter wear area measurement

    图  17  VSPC实验系统[33]

    Figure  17.  VSPC test system[33]

    图  18  PDC钻头齿的正面和侧面岩屑形成过程[34]

    Figure  18.  Formation process of rock debris on the front and side of PDC drill bit cutter[34]

    图  19  单齿高压测试设备[37]

    Figure  19.  Single cutter high-voltage testing equipment[37]

    图  20  静压实验装置示意图[12]

    Figure  20.  Schematic diagram of a static pressure test device[12]

    图  21  落锤冲击实验装置

    Figure  21.  Drop hammer impact test device

    图  22  钎焊后的斧形齿

    Figure  22.  Axe shaped cutter after brazing

    图  23  斧形齿的落锤冲击实验结果

    Figure  23.  Experimental results of drop hammer impact on axe shaped cutter

    图  24  多功能钻井模拟实验装置[38]

    Figure  24.  Multifunctional drilling simulation device[38]

    图  25  PDC钻头及其切削轨迹

    Figure  25.  PDC drill bit and its cutting trajectory

    图  26  3H-650A型钻机示意图[39]

    Figure  26.  Schematic diagram of 3H-650A drilling rig[39]

    图  27  XY-2B钻机[40]

    Figure  27.  XY-2B drilling rig[40]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-08-01
  • 修回日期:  2023-08-16
  • 录用日期:  2023-11-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-11-06
  • 刊出日期:  2023-10-20

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